Objective To describe the epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of the first local mpox case in the Chinese mainland and provide evidence for the prevention and control of mpox.
Methods An epidemiological investigation was conducted to understand the case's onset, high-risk exposure and identify the source of infection. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect case and environmental samples.
Results The case developed rash and inguinal lymphadenopathy on May 26, 2023 and had a fever on May 27. On May 31, case samples of skin rash swab, oropharyngeal swab, and blood were tested positive for mpox virus (MPXV). The case was transferred to a sentinel hospital for isolation treatment on June 1 and discharged on June 12. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the case had sexual exposure for 2 times to an imported mpox case within 21 days, and a close contact with whom the case had sex was also infected. Environment samples from public places visited by the case after onset were tested negative for MPXV, and no other contacts were found to be infected.
Conclusion The case was the first local mpox case in the Chinese mainland, and the infection source was an imported mpox case. There is an urgent need to improve the detection and diagnosis of mpox and conduct intervention as early as possible to reduce the infection risk in men who have sex with men. The risk of the spread of mpox to general population is relatively low.