The standard strains have always been the cornerstone of microbiological research. Standard strains are special standard samples for functions and purposes with clear taxonomy status, specific biological properties, genetic stability and traceability, which are kept by culture collections. They are important reference in daily work and scientific research. Standard strains are widely used and have huge application needs. However, there is a lack of unified definition, screening, and evaluation technical standards for standard strains at home and abroad now. After the implementation of the “WS/T 812–2022 Technical Requirements for Evaluation of National Standard Strains of Pathogenic Microorganisms”, it will provide overall reference standards for the research and application of standard strains in China, and provide technical basis for the screening, evaluation, and determination of standard strains in various related fields. Therefore, this article summarized the background, research advance, application status, and existing problems of standard strains to provide reference for further research and application of standard strains in China.