朱圭娜, 王文军, 侯怀哲, 刘宸志, 梁姿萱. 2018-2022年甘肃省庆阳市流行性感冒流行病学及病原学监测分析[J]. 凯发娱乐加盟代理, 2024, 39(1): 26-31. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202304270187
引用本文: 朱圭娜, 王文军, 侯怀哲, 刘宸志, 梁姿萱. 2018-2022年甘肃省庆阳市流行性感冒流行病学及病原学监测分析[J]. 凯发娱乐加盟代理, 2024, 39(1): 26-31. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202304270187
Zhu Guina, Wang Wenjun, Hou Huaizhe, Liu Chenzhi, Liang Zixuan. Epidemiological and etiological surveillance for influenza in Qingyang, Gansu, 2018?2022[J]. Disease Surveillance, 2024, 39(1): 26-31. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202304270187
Citation: Zhu Guina, Wang Wenjun, Hou Huaizhe, Liu Chenzhi, Liang Zixuan. Epidemiological and etiological surveillance for influenza in Qingyang, Gansu, 2018?2022[J]. Disease Surveillance, 2024, 39(1): 26-31. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202304270187

2018-2022年甘肃省庆阳市流行性感冒流行病学及病原学监测分析

Epidemiological and etiological surveillance for influenza in Qingyang, Gansu, 2018?2022

  • 摘要:
    目的 分析甘肃省庆阳市2018—2022年流行性感冒(流感)哨点医院监测的流感样病例(ILI)及病原学监测情况,掌握庆阳市流感流行趋势及病原学变化规律,为今后流感的科学防控提供数据支撑。
    方法 ILI资料来源于中国疾病预防控制信息系统的子系统中国流感监测信息系统2018—2022年庆阳市的流感监测数据。 ILI病原学监测标本来源于哨点医院,对病例标本进行核酸提取,采用实时荧光定量PCR方法进行分型,对核酸检测阳性的标本同时进行犬肾细胞培养和鸡胚培养,分离、鉴定病毒。 利用Excel 2007软件对数据进行汇总、整理和绘图,用SPSS 22.0软件对数据进行统计分析。
    结果 2018—2022年度共监测ILI 6 473例,年平均流感样病例百分比(ILI%)为1.34%,ILI%总体呈下降趋势(趋势χ2=1 165.377,P<0.001)。 ILI以0~4岁组最多,占60.68%;其次为5~14岁组,占26.30%。 2020—2022年平均ILI%为0.85%,呈明显下降趋势;各年龄组ILI%也呈明显降低趋势,高年龄组的降低幅度高于低年龄组。 流行病学和病原学监测结果显示,流感的流行具有季节性特征,每年的冬春季出现一个流行高峰。 2018—2022年度共检测ILI标本3 574份,流感病毒阳性标本621份,阳性率为17.38%,不同监测年度流感阳性率差异有统计学意义(χ2=55.778,P<0.001)。 不同型别阳性标本中,甲、乙型流感分别占46.38%、52.66%,混合型占0.97%,在2021年的常规监测中检出2份欧亚类禽H1N1猪流感病例标本。 不同年份呈现单一型别交替流行或多种型别共同流行的特征,监测年度中乙型流感的流行强度总体高于甲型流感。
    结论 庆阳市ILI和流感病毒的流行趋势、流行特点提示,要持续加强流感病毒监测力度,提高检测水平,及时掌握流感流行和病毒变异情况,制定科学有效的防控策略,为季节性流感疫情做出知情预测及精准防控。

     

    Abstract:
    Objective To understand the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of influenza in Qingyang, Gansu province, from 2018 to 2022 and provide data support for the effective prevention and control of influenza in the future.
    Methods The etiological surveillance data of influenza-like illness (ILI) in local sentinel hospitals were obtained from Chinese Influenza Surveillance Information System, a subsystem of Chinese Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. ILI case samples were collected from the sentinel hospitals for the extraction of influenza virus nucleic acid, and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used for typing. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cell culture and chicken embryo culture were performed for the nucleic acid positive samples to isolate and identify the viruses. The data were processed by using Excel 2007, and statistical analysis was performed by using software SPSS 22.0.
    Results From 2018 to 2022, a total of 6 473 ILI cases were recorded in Qingyang. The annual average ILI case percentage was 1.34%. The ILI case percentage showed a decreasing trend (trend χ2=1165.377, P=0.00). The ILI cases were mainly distributed in children aged 0–4 years (60.68%), followed by those aged 5–14 years (26.30%). From 2020 to 2022, the overall average ILI case percentage was 0.85%, showing a clear decreasing trend, and the ILI case percentage in all age groups decreased too, but the decrease was more obvious in older age group than in younger age group. The results of epidemiological and etiological surveillance demonstrated that the incidence of influenza had seasonal characteristics, with an annual incidence peak in winter and spring. From 2018 to 2022, a total of 3 574 ILI case samples were detected, in which 621 were positive for the influenza viruses, with the positive rate of 17.38%. The differences in influenza positive rate among different years were significant (χ2=55.778, P<0.001). Among the positive samples of different types, the positive samples of influenza A and B viruses accounted for 46.38% and 52.66% respectively, while the co-positive samples accounted for 0.97%. Two positive samples of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus were detected in routine surveillance in 2021. The incidence intensity of influenza B was generally higher than that of influenza A, but influenza A virus and influenza B virus spread together or alternatively in different years.
    Conclusion The epidemiological and etiological characteristics of ILI in Qingyang indicated that the surveillance for influenza viruses should be further strengthened. It is crucial to improve the surveillance and detection of influenza viruses to understand the virus variation for the development of effective influenza prevention and control strategies as well as the accurate prediction and control of seasonal influenza epidemic.

     

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